Publications

Effective Collaborations Cover

The report explores the ways in which infrastructure organizations think about the value and the mechanics of collaboration—the drivers and barriers to collaborative work—and to determine ways to encourage more effective partnerships. The publication features a framework for understanding different types of collaboration, a set of recommendations for better collaboration, and a series of case studies that show a range of partnerships that tease out the potential benefits and challenges of various kinds of collaboration.

Expenditure Responsibility: Step by Step

Expenditure responsibility is the federally mandated procedure that a private foundation—and some public charities—must follow for any grant made to an organization that is not a public charity. This chapter of Mastering Foundation Law: The Council on Foundations Compendium of Legal Resources focuses on the steps of expenditure responsibility when granting to non 501(c)(3) organizations.

Fiscal Sponsorship

Fiscal sponsorship provides a valuable tool for charitable entrepreneurs to realize their vision by working with an established charity that takes in tax-deductible donations and private-foundation grants to fund their charitable activities. This chapter of Mastering Foundation Law: The Council on Foundations Compendium of Legal Resources focuses on the basic elements of fiscal sponsorship, the predominant models and their relative advantages and disadvantages, and the mechanical aspects involved.

Foundation Finance and Investment Management

This chapter of Mastering Foundation Law examines Uniform Prudent Management of Institutional Funds Act (UPMIFA) and other laws that govern the management and investment of endowments and other foundation financial assets. It also includes a discussion of the board’s role and the use of outside advisors.

Global Family Philanthropy: Exploring Key Considerations for Giving Across Borders

This paper by the Council on Foundations, BNY Mellon, and Give2Asia explores the opportunities and challenges that face global families as they seek to conduct cross-border philanthropy. From coordinating family strategy to navigating complex tax regimes, global family philanthropy is not a simple feat. However, due to generational change and technological advancements, it’s becoming far more common. This paper equips global families with key considerations and offers recommendations on how to proceed with global family philanthropy in an effective manner.

International Grantmaking: A Guide for Funders Making Grants Outside the United States

Making grants to institutions outside the United States is challenging and rewarding.This chapter of Mastering Foundation Law: The Council on Foundations Compendium of Legal Resources focuses on the various legal and technical requirements necessary to comply with the U.S. law and regulations concerning grants to non-U.S. organizations.

Philanthropy and Rural America

Learn what philanthropy is doing—or should be doing—in rural communities to growing assets and improve education, health, and the environment.

Philanthropy University, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, and GSVlabs published a new report on the SDGs and how the various sectors, including philanthropy, can drive progress towards achieving the SDGs.

Starting A Foundation: Formation and Considerations

Many people want to start foundations, but few start out knowing exactly what sort of organization they are going to create. The purpose of this e-book is to help potential donors understand the many different entities that are commonly referred to as foundations and to provide an understanding of the legal framework necessary to establish a foundation.

Supporting Organizations

This chapter discusses the federal tax laws governing supporting organizations. As a result of the Tax Reform Act of 1969, private foundations receive considerably less favorable treatment under tax law than public charities. Supporting organizations are a hybrid of private foundations and public charities that generally enjoy more favorable tax treatment than private foundations because they are exempt from many of the excise taxes imposed on private foundations.

The Complete Guide to Grantmaking Basics: A Field Guide for Funders

The Complete Guide brings together and updates the information, guidance, and tips found in Grantmaking Basics I and II with more essential tools for grantmakers.

State of Global Giving by US Foundations 2011-2015 report

The Council on Foundations and Foundation Center analyzed how US foundations supported international communities, non-profits, and programs between 2011 and 2015 for our report, The State of Global Giving by U.S. Foundations: 2011-2015. In addition to a detailed analysis of trends by issue area, geographic region, population group, and donor strategy, this analysis also relates these trends to key events and developments, including the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the spread of Ebola in West Africa, and the increasing legal restrictions faced by civil society in countries around the world.

What to Expect from an Audit

This chapter of Mastering Foundation Law describes the IRS audit process for exempt organizations, including private foundations; highlights current areas of enforcement focus; and discusses the value of formal legal opinions for private foundations and their managers.