As current levels of social and political polarization reach new heights, so do discussions about extremism, disinformation, and hate speech. But what do these terms mean for institutions such as philanthropy, technology, and media which straddle and blur the boundaries between public and private life? In many ways, current debates follow old patterns and paradigms surrounding the limits of free speech. As a constitutionally protected right, free speech protections spur discussion across the spectrum of constitutional rights, public safety, and political activity. As a result, conversations around hate speech are often fraught and highly contested, leaving the United States as one of the few democracies in the world to not have some form of legislation prohibiting its amplification and proliferation.